Ovarian cysts are commonly observed in women of childbearing ages and are characterized as fluid filled sacs that get formed over the ovary, during maturation of one or more ovarian follicles. Ovarian follicles contain eggs within them and normally release them in fallopian tube for reproduction to begin. But, in case of cysts formation, those ovarian follicles are no more able to release eggs into the fallopian tubes, resulting in lowered chances of reproduction.
Cysts can bleed, rupture or twist causing pain. Though, most of the cysts are non cancerous (benign) that sheds away on its own without any treatment, but at times cysts can be malignant or cancerous that need to be timely treated. Therefore, cysts need to be examined thoroughly and for those with recurrent cysts formation, hormonal therapy can be employed to shrink them away and prevent formation of newer cysts.
Various Types Of Ovarian Cysts
Follicular cysts are formed during ovulation and are absolutely normal. These get shrunk or disappear on their own during menstruation or within a span of few months.
Only ovulating women show formation of such follicular or functional cysts. Such cysts will not appear after menopause.
There is ability of certain ovarian cells to get differentiated into various types of cells and occasionally, when cyst gets formed in such cells it is referred as dermoid cysts. These cysts usually include cells of teeth, hair and other growing tissues and usually are small in size and develop without any observable symptoms.
These can be the cause of trouble in case, cysts get enlarged as then these may lead to pain. These cysts are similar to those that form on skin tissues and may contain fat and occasionally hair, cartilage and bone.
Women with irregular menstruation cycles have a potential of developing multiple cysts. These are formed due to hormonal imbalances and are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS symptoms include increased body hair, infertility and irregular menstrual cycles.
PCOS is extremely common and occurs in around 4 to 7% women of reproductive ages and is known to be associated with high risk of endometrial cancer.
Cyst Adenomas Or Benign Cystic Tumors
These are non cancerous cysts that are usually filled with liquid and are usually formed on the outer surface of ovaries and are referred as cyst adenomas. The ovary with many of such cysts present on its outer surface appears twice larger than the usual size and is known as polycystic appearing ovary. It is usually formed in normal women and women having endocrine disorders and is diagnosed with help of an ultrasound.
These cysts are formed in women with endometriosis, where tissue from uterine inner lining start growing on ovaries, fallopian tubes and other organs present outside of the uterus.
Such endrometriomas affect women in reproductive years and can result in chronic pain during menstruation and sexual intercourse. Women with endrometriomas show problem with fertility as 80% of all pelvic endometriosis occurs in one or both of the ovaries.
These cysts are formed either on the fallopian tubes or along the sides of ovaries and usually mimic the usual cysts of the ovaries. These paraovarian cysts have to be monitored closely as they may grow big in size and can become potentially troublesome..
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